Ethiopian phobia rages on -(LOCAL VIEWPOINT)

Last updated: Thursday, November 28, 2013 5:31 PM
Mazen Abdul Razziq Baleelah

Al-Madinah
Following a number of murders and other crimes, attempts by some housemaids to kill children and the recent riots in Manfuha in Riyadh and Siteen St. in Jeddah, a large number of Saudi citizens have become wary of the Ethiopian community here. Most Ethiopians are peaceful and law-abiding but the repeated stories about violent acts by Ethiopians have made us wary of them.

The security forces have nabbed more than 60,000 Ethiopian violators in various parts of the Kingdom who were handed over to the department concerned with detaining and deporting expatriates which now belongs to the Directorate General of Prisons. So far, about 30,000 illegal Ethiopians have been deported. The department continues to receive illegal Ethiopians including women and children. It is providing them with food, water and medical care.

Saudi Arabian Airlines (Saudia) has operated 21 flights since the start of the crackdown campaign to transport illegal Ethiopians to their country. The airline said that13 flights were made from King Abdulaziz International Airport in Jeddah while eight flights were made from King Khaled International Airport in Riyadh.

This is all good news which should have pacified Saudis but in fact it did not. The Ethiopian phobia is still very much alive in Saudi society. This phobia may not be imaginary as it has been reported that a number of security men who were asked by the criminal evidence department to fingerprint Ethiopians accommodated in an old building of Princess Nora University in Riyadh were attacked. The security men had to escape through the openings for  air conditioners. They tired to pacify the angry Ethiopians but when they failed they had to run for their lives. Many of them were hurt while attempting to escape.

The ongoing deportation of illegal Ethiopians should relieve Saudis of their fears but in fact it has not done so. The Ethiopian phobia may be with us for quite some time.

Transcript of 1944 Bretton Woods Conference Found at Treasury

Associated Press

Acting Secretary of State Dean Acheson, standing at center, and representatives of 28 Allied nations met in Washington in 1945 to sign the pact reached at the Bretton Woods conference.

By 
Published: October 25, 2012

WASHINGTON — A Treasury economist rummaging in the department’s library has stumbled on a historical treasure hiding in plain sight: a transcript of the Bretton Woods conference in 1944 that cast the foundations of the modern international monetary system.

The Bretton Woods Transcripts

 

The Center for Financial Stability has included links to the transcripts on its web site.

International Monetary Fund, via Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

John Maynard Keynes addressed the Bretton Woods conference, where the International Monetary Fund was created.

Historians had never known that a transcript existed for the event held in the heat of World War II, when delegates from 44 allied nations fighting Hitler gathered in the mountains of New Hampshire to create the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. But there were three copies in archives and libraries around Washington that had never been made public, until now.

“It’s as if someone handed us Madison’s notes on the debate over the Constitution,” said Eric Rauchway, a historian the University of California, Davis.

Economic historians who have viewed the transcript say it adds color and detail to the historical record, an already thick one given the many contemporaneous and subsequent accounts of Bretton Woods. The transcript seems to contain no great surprises, but it sheds light on the intense debates as the war raged abroad.

It depicts John Maynard Keynes, the British economist, hurrying to marshal support for the broad agreements on international finance. It underscores the tremendous power then wielded by Britain and, especially, the United States. It also shows the seeds of contemporary disputes being sown.

For instance, seven decades ago, a number of poorer or smaller countries were protesting their International Monetary Fund quotas, which determine power in the fund. Many of those countries, including China and India, are still pushing for more influence today.

In one section of the transcript, an American representative lays out a proposal for apportioning power in the fund and underscores what was at stake, with the war coming to its bloody climax in Europe.

“We fight together on sodden battlefields. We sail together on the majestic blue. We fly together in the ethereal sky,” said Fred M. Vinson, who later became chief justice of the United States. “The test of this conference is whether we can walk together, solve our economic problems, down the road to peace as we today march to victory.”

But the response was not one of absolute unity.

“In spite of the very eloquent and moving speech of the United States delegate, on behalf of the Iranian delegation I wish to state that the quota proposed for my country is entirely unsatisfactory,” a delegate from Tehran responded.

Then, a delegate from China added: “I hesitate greatly to sound a note of discord at this conference. It has been the effort of the Chinese delegation to promote harmony and the success of this great common enterprise. But every delegation has its difficulties.”

The Netherlands, Greece, Australia, India, Yugoslavia, New Zealand, France, Ethiopia, Norway and Britain then added their comments and objections. “I think that a lot of people have thought of Bretton Woods as being a stitch-up job between United Kingdom and the United States,” Mr. Rauchway said. “But that’s overstated, and it’s definitely visible in this transcript. You can see the poorer countries fighting their own corner.”

Kurt Schuler a Treasury Department economist, was browsing in an “out of the way” section of uncataloged material in the library two years ago when he came across the Bretton Woods document. He flipped through and saw some remarks by Keynes that he was not familiar with, sort of the economists’ equivalent of a Bob Dylan fan finding unknown lyrics.

“I checked them against Keynes’s collected works,” Mr. Schuler said. “And I knew I had something.”

His research revealed that there were three copies of the transcript that scores of economic historians were not aware of: the version at the Treasury Department; one in the National Archives; and the third in the International Monetary Fund archives.

In his spare time, Mr. Schuler set about turning the yellowed transcript into a book, with a co-editor, Andrew Rosenberg. It took a tremendous amount of work, Mr. Schuler said. They read the transcript aloud into transcription software. They added hyperlinks to documents referenced at the conference, and wrote summaries, annotations and historical notes.

This week, the polished transcript was published as an 800-page e-book by the Center for Financial Stability, a nonprofit group based in New York that researches financial markets, where Mr. Schuler is a senior fellow and Mr. Rosenberg a research associate.

“Everyone thinks they know what happened at Bretton Woods, but what they know has been filtered by generations of historical accounts,” Barry Eichengreen, a professor or economics and political science at the University of California, Berkeley, said in a statement. “International monetary history will never be the same.”

The transcript provides “insight in how it was that they were able to maintain a pace of work which allowed them to reach two really big agreements, on the I.M.F. and the World Bank, within a space of three weeks,” Mr. Schuler said. “Keynes was something of a task master,” he added.

Benn Steil, a senior fellow and director of international economics at the Council on Foreign Relations, said readers can see the British Empire “disintegrating before your eyes,” in the transcript. “The Indians are so vociferous that the British are ripping them off. The British are both furious and mortified that their colony would do this to them,” he said, describing a dispute over debts with the colonies.

“Bretton Woods was itself 95 percent Kabuki theater,” he said. “But it’s interesting Kabuki theater.”

A version of this article appeared in print on October 26, 2012, on page B1 of the New York edition with the headline: Transcript of ’44 Bretton Woods Conference Found at Treasury.

Ethiopia refuses Inspection Panel investigation

26 JUNE 2013

Ethiopia has said that it will not cooperate in a proposed investigation by the World Bank’s accountability mechanism, the Inspection Panel (IP), into a programme linked to the Bank that according to the indigenous peoples filing the complaint led to “forced villagisation” (see Update 82). A spokesperson for the Ethiopian prime minster said in May that they “are not going to cooperate” with the IP, calling it “a panel that likes to impose its mostly fictitious findings on the decision-making process of the World Bank.” David Pred of US-based NGO Inclusive Development International said: “I don’t see how the Bank could justifiably continue supporting Ethiopia if the government simply rejects outright any semblance of accountability.” A Bank board meeting to discuss the eligibility of the case has been postponed from mid March to mid July.

The End of the Public University?

The End of the Public University?

November 26, 2013 

About 8 out of every 10 college students attends a public college or university, from the local community college down the street to the massive flagship university in the middle of the state usually known for its football team. Of those students who go to public universities, most of them—some 70%—go to smaller, regional public colleges that train a majority of our teachers, nurses, and local business leaders.

The vastness and popularity of our public colleges and universities typically surprises audiences when I mention them in talks about my book on the future of higher ed. After all, only two of the top 25 national universities as ranked by U.S. News & World Report are public institutions, and the first one of those (University of California at Berkeley) doesn’t appear until #20. And if you pay attention to the national media, most of the attention is showered on universities such as Harvard, Stanford, Princeton, or small liberal-arts colleges such as Amherst and Williams.

Public universities rarely get much attention unless they reject your son or daughter, raise their tuition, or if their football team wins a national championship.

But given how many Americans are educated at public universities, especially at a time when a college degree is about the only ticket left to the middle class, we all have a stake in their future health. And right now, the signs for the health of many of these public institutions are not good.

Just this past week, Moody’s Investors Service, which rates the debt of mostly stable colleges, reported that 72% of four-year public universities are experiencing essentially flat or declining net-tuition revenue. That’s the money these colleges have left over after giving out financial aid to invest in buildings, academic programs, and faculty. In other words, most of these colleges are either treading water when it comes to new revenue or losing money every year.

“Public universities have not experienced such poor prospects for tuition-revenue growth in more than two decades,” the report said.

Now, if you’re a student or parent paying tuition at one of these colleges, you’re probably wondering why they are crying poor when your bill goes up every year even as it gets more difficult to enroll in the classes needed to complete a degree.

The problem is that these institutions have been raising tuition year after year to make up for declines in dollars from the state. Since 2008, 41 states have cut funds to higher education. At just 1 in 10 public universities do state funds make up the largest proportion of the university’s budget; in 2003, states made up the largest provider at half of the public universities.

Not all of these institutions, of course, are innocent victims in this tale. Even after years of budget cuts, many are still inefficient in their operations and in desperate need of adopting more innovative business models. But such changes can only go so far before the core of the academic product suffers.

As the numbers from Moody’s seem to indicate, public colleges and universities don’t have much pricing power left to raise tuition to make up for cuts in state aid. So unless they get infusions of cash from elsewhere, what’s likely to happen is what is already occurring in places like California, where public colleges are turning away qualified applicants and where current students find it more difficult each semester to get into the classes they need to graduate.

What’s happening to public higher education is reaching crisis proportions. So as you cheer for State U. in the big football game this weekend, be thankful for the system we have that has educated generations of Americans because it might not be around much longer, at least in its current form.

Jeffrey Selingo is author of College (Un)Bound: The Future of Higher Education and What It Means for Studentscontributing editor at The Chronicle of Higher Education, and a professor of practice at Arizona State University. Follow him here by clicking the FOLLOW button above, at jeffselingo.com, and on Twitter @jselingo

 

Photo: ML Harris / Getty Images

John F. Kennedy

Photo of John F. Kennedy

 

On November 22, 1963, when he was hardly past his first thousand days in office, John Fitzgerald Kennedy was killed by an assassin’s bullets as his motorcade wound through Dallas, Texas. Kennedy was the youngest man elected President; he was the youngest to die.

Of Irish descent, he was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, on May 29, 1917. Graduating from Harvard in 1940, he entered the Navy. In 1943, when his PT boat was rammed and sunk by a Japanese destroyer, Kennedy, despite grave injuries, led the survivors through perilous waters to safety.

Back from the war, he became a Democratic Congressman from the Boston area, advancing in 1953 to the Senate. He married Jacqueline Bouvier on September 12, 1953. In 1955, while recuperating from a back operation, he wrote Profiles in Courage, which won the Pulitzer Prize in history.

In 1956 Kennedy almost gained the Democratic nomination for Vice President, and four years later was a first-ballot nominee for President. Millions watched his television debates with the Republican candidate, Richard M. Nixon. Winning by a narrow margin in the popular vote, Kennedy became the first Roman Catholic President.

His Inaugural Address offered the memorable injunction: “Ask not what your country can do for you–ask what you can do for your country.” As President, he set out to redeem his campaign pledge to get America moving again. His economic programs launched the country on its longest sustained expansion since World War II; before his death, he laid plans for a massive assault on persisting pockets of privation and poverty.

Responding to ever more urgent demands, he took vigorous action in the cause of equal rights, calling for new civil rights legislation. His vision of America extended to the quality of the national culture and the central role of the arts in a vital society.

He wished America to resume its old mission as the first nation dedicated to the revolution of human rights. With the Alliance for Progress and the Peace Corps, he brought American idealism to the aid of developing nations. But the hard reality of the Communist challenge remained.

Shortly after his inauguration, Kennedy permitted a band of Cuban exiles, already armed and trained, to invade their homeland. The attempt to overthrow the regime of Fidel Castro was a failure. Soon thereafter, the Soviet Union renewed its campaign against West Berlin. Kennedy replied by reinforcing the Berlin garrison and increasing the Nation’s military strength, including new efforts in outer space. Confronted by this reaction, Moscow, after the erection of the Berlin Wall, relaxed its pressure in central Europe.

Instead, the Russians now sought to install nuclear missiles in Cuba. When this was discovered by air reconnaissance in October 1962, Kennedy imposed a quarantine on all offensive weapons bound for Cuba. While the world trembled on the brink of nuclear war, the Russians backed down and agreed to take the missiles away. The American response to the Cuban crisis evidently persuaded Moscow of the futility of nuclear blackmail.

Kennedy now contended that both sides had a vital interest in stopping the spread of nuclear weapons and slowing the arms race–a contention which led to the test ban treaty of 1963. The months after the Cuban crisis showed significant progress toward his goal of “a world of law and free choice, banishing the world of war and coercion.” His administration thus saw the beginning of new hope for both the equal rights of Americans and the peace of the world.

The Presidential biographies on WhiteHouse.gov are from “The Presidents of the United States of America,” by Frank Freidel and Hugh Sidey. Copyright 2006 by the White House Historical Association.


For more information about President Kennedy, please visit
John F. Kennedy Library and Museum

 

http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy

“አንዱዓለም አራጌ በትግራይ ሕዝብ የሚወደድ የተቃዋሚ ፓርቲ መሪ ነው” አብርሃ ደስታ

Freedom4Ethiopian

ከመቀሌ ኢትዮጵያ በየጊዜው በፌስቡክ እና በተለያዩ ድረገጾች ወቅታዊ መረጃዎችን በማድረስ የሚታወቀው አብርሃ ደስታ አንዷአለም አራጌ በትግራይ ሕዝብ የሚወደድ የተቃዋሚ ፓርቲ መሪ ነው አለ።

በአሁኑ ወቅት የ ዕድሜ ልክ እስራት ተፈርዶበት በማረሚያ ቤት የሚገኘውና በዚህ አመት የዘ-ሐበሻ እና የኢሳት ተከታዮች የዓመቱ ምርጥ ሰው በሚል ሽልማት ያገኘው አንዷለም አራጌ በትግራይ ሕዝብ ዘንድም ከፍተኛ አክብሮት የተሰጠው ፖለቲከኛ መሆኑን አብርሃ ደስታ ገልጿል።
“ከትግራይ ሰዎች ባሰባሰብኩት መረጃ መሰረት ባሁኑ ሰዓት ክብርና አድናቆት የተቸረው የተቃዋሚ ፖለቲካ መሪ አንዱአለም አራጌ ነው” ሲል በፌስቡክ ገጹ የገለጸው ሌሎች ዝርዝር መረጃዎችን አላስቀመጠም።
ይቅርታ ጠይቅ ተብሎ “ያጠፋሁት ጥፋት ስለሌላ ይቅርታ አልጠይቅም” በሚል በእስር ቤት መስዋትነት የከፈለው አንዷአለም አራጌ ትናንት በአንድነት ፓርቲ ጽ/ቤት ያልተሄደበት መንገድ መጽሐፍ በድምቀት ተመርቋል። የአንዷለም አራጌ ያልተሄደበት መንገድ መጽሐፍ በቅርቡ በውጭ ሃገራትም እንደሚሰራጭ ለዘ-ሐበሻ የደረሰ መረጃ ያመለክታል።
አንዱዓለም አራጌ የያዘው የዓላማ ጽናት ብዙ ተከታዮች እንዲኖሩት ያደረገ ቢሆንም፤ እየከፈለ እንዳለው መስዋትነት ግን ከ እስር እንዲፈታ ለመጠየቅ፣ ፊርማ በማሰባሰብ፣ ሰላማዊ ሰልፍ በመውጣትና በሌሎችም በየከተማው የሚደረጉ እንስቃሴዎች ቀዝቃዛ መሆናቸው ያስቆጫል ሲሉ…

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የ ታላቁ ሩጫ ተሳታፊዎች ተቃዉሟቸዉን አሰሙ!!!

Freedom4Ethiopian

ቁጥራቸዉ ቀላል የማይባል ወገኖች ዛሬ በተካሄደዉ የ ታላቁ ሩጫ ላይ በሳዑዲ ስለሚሞቱና ስለሚንገላቱ ኢትዮጵያዊያን ድምፃቸዉን ሲያሰሙና በመንግስትም ላይ ወቀሳቸዉን በመፈክር እዲዲሁም በዜማ አሰምተዋል፡፡ መንግሰት በዚህ ሩጫ ላይ ህብረተሰቡ የሰማያዊ ፓርቲን ጥሪ እዳይቀበል በአዘጋጀቹ በኩል ቢያሳስብም(ጥቁር ሪቫን እንዳይደረግ) የሀገር ፍቅር ያቃጠላቸዉና የወገኖቻቸዉ ጥቃት ያተሰማቸዉተሳታፊዎች ከፍተኛ የፖሊስና የደህንነት ቁጥጥር ከቁብ ሳይቆጥሩ “በሳዑዲ ነገር እንነጋገር የሳዑዲን ነገር ” ሲሉ አርፍደዋል፡፡ ገና ከመግቢያዉ ጀምሮ ከፍተኛ ፍተሻ ሲደረግ የነበረ ቢሆንም አብዛኞቹ ተሳታፊዎች ሪቫኑን ትተዉ በጥቁር ኮፍያና ሱሪዎች ሩጫዉን መካፈል ችለዋል(በተቃዉሞዉ የተሳተፉቱ)፡፡

በሳዑዲ ላይ ተቃዉሟቸዉን ሲያሰሙ በነበረበት ወቅትም ዳር ዳር ላይ ቆመዉ ሁኔታዉን ሲከታተሉ የነበሩ ሰዎችና በእድሜ የገፉ ሰዎች በእልልታ እና በጭብጨባ ያበረታቱዋቸዉ ነበር፡፡ በዚህ አኳኋን የተካሄደዉ ሩጫ(እርምጃ) ወደ መጠናቀቁ ላይ ግን በደህንነቶች የሚነዳዉ(የሚታዘዘዉ) የፖሊስ ሀይል አንድ ቡድን ላይ በማተኮር ከበባ የሚመስል ነገር በማድረግ እየቆራረጡ ወደ ጃንሜዳ ግቢ እዲገቡ በማድረግ በሩ አካባቢ ላይ ሶስት የሚሆኑ ወጣቶችን(በከፍተኛ ሁኔታ መፈክር ሲያሰሙ የነበሩ) አስረዋል፡፡ በዚህ የተደናገጡት ተሳታፊዎችም ጩኸት በማሰማት ወደ ዉስጥ እየተሯሯጡ በመግባት ሩጫዉም ተቃዉሞዉም ሊጠናቀቅ ችሏል፡፡

ይሰሙ ከነበሩት…

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