ከሮቤል ወሬ 〉ወደ ዱብ፡ ዱብ

ሀገር ሰላም ነው ብለን ውይ ይቅርታ ለካ ሀገር ሰላም አልነበረም፤ ኢንተርኔት ይሰራል ብለን የዜና መስኮቶቻችንን ስንከፋፍት የፌስቡኩ ወሬ ከሰላማዊ ሰልፍ ወደ ሮቤል ኪሮስ የዋና ውጤት ላይ አተኩሮ ነበር። ያው ዜናውን አነበብኩና ወደሌሎች አለማቀፍ ወሬች ሳመራ እዛም እርሱ ነው፤ በጣም ገርሞኝ ሳነብ ቆየሁ። አንዴ ባማርኛ ሌላ ጊዜ በእንግሊዝኛ የስድብና የትችት መዓት በሮቤል ኪሮስ ሀብቴ ላይ ሲወርድ በዓይኔ ሳነብ ከቆየሁ በኋላ እኔም በተራዬ ልክ ልኩን ብዬ የውስጤን አወጣሁና ወጣልኝ።
ከዛም መሸ፡ ነጋ፣ መሸ፡ ነጋ፤ ለካ ሀበሻውም ፈረንጁም አቤልን ሰድበው አልወጣላቸውም። በሮቤል ላይ ከተሰነዘሩት ትችቶች ያልተስማማሁበት ነገር አንድም የለም።
ከአቤል ትችቶች በጥቂቱ:
  1. ብቃት የሌለው የነፃ ዋና ተወዳዳሪ
  2. ኢትዮጵያን በየትኛውም ስፖርት መወከል የለበትም (ምናልባት ነፃ ትግል)
  3. ውክልናውን በዝምድና ማግኘቱ ደግሞ ይበልጥ ከሁሉ ታናሽ አድርጎታል
  4. ወዘተ
ከአቤል ድሎች ብቸኛው:
  1. የኢትዮጵያውያን የሁል ጊዜ የቀጫጫነት ተምሳሌት ለአንዴና ለመጨረሻ ጊዜ ወደ ቦርጫምነት ቀይሮታል።

ለአቤል አምሳዮች (ለወንዶች ብቻ)

አቤልን ለመተቸት ብዙ ሊባል ይችላል፤ ነገር ግን ስንቶቻችን ነን የአቤልን አይነት የሰውነት አቋም ይዘን ለትችት የበቃነው? እንደው ስፖርት ከተሰራስ ስንት ጊዜ ሆነው? ጠዋት ተነስቶ ስፖርት የሚሰራውስ የትኛው የአዲሳባ ሰው ነው? ወይስ የየትኛው ዋሽንግተን ዲሲ ጂም ነው አባልነትህ?
ቢያንስ እንኳን አቆጣጠሩ ባይገባኝም ሮቤል በቀን (ጠዋት3000ሺ + ማታ 3000ሺ) = 6000ሺ ይሰራል። እንደብርሌ የተጎለተ ቦርጭ ተይዞ አቤልን ማንኳሰስ እጅጉን ከባድ ጥፋት ነው፤ ያው ስሜት አይሰጥማ ጃል። ፈረንጆቹ እኮ የአቤልን አይነት ሰውነት እንደጤና አይመለከቱትም፤ ለዛም በየቀኑ ስፖርት ቤት ይሄዳሉ፣ በየፓርኩ ይሮጣሉ፣ አመጋገብ ያስተካክላሉ፡ ወዘተ።

ፍልፍሉ በኢቢኤስ
ሀበሻው ግን የአቤልን አይነት ሰውነት እንደ ምቾትና የተሻለ ኑሮ ማሳያ ይመለከተዋል፤ ለዚህም አቤል ከአብዛኛው የሀበሻ የአዋቂ የሰውነት ቁመና ጋር የሚመሳሰለው።
ያው አቤል ኪሮስ እንደ ስፖርተኛና ሙሉ ሰውነቱ በካሜራ እንደሚቀረፅ ተወዳዳሪ የተስተካከለ ቁመና ቢኖረው የተሻለ ነበር። ነገር ግን ፈረንጆቹ በአቤል የሰውነት አቋም ላይ ካቀረቡት ትችት ልንማር የሚገባን የአብዛኛው የሀበሻ የአዋቂዎች አቋም ጤናማ ያይደለና በተለያዩ የሰውነት እንቅስቃሴዎች ልናስተካክለው እንደሚገባን ነው። የአመጋገብ ስርዓታችንን ማስተካከል ደግሞ እጅጉን ተገቢ የሆነ መፍትሄ ነው ባይ ነኝ።
እንዲህ መካሪ ያደረገህ ማነው ካላችኑኝ፡ ቅጥነቴ ብዬ ልሰናበት።

የቄሳርን ለቄሳር የህዝብን ለህዝብ

ኢትዮጵያ የህዝብ መንግስት ያስፈልጋታል!
በ2007ቱ የኢትዮጵያ ሀገራዊ ምርጫ አሁን በስልጣን ላይ ያለው መንግስት በምርጫው ላይ ከፍተኛ ድምፅ አግኝቻለሁ እንዲያውም በትክክል 100% የህዝብ ደምፅ አገኝቻለሁ ሲል ቀልድ ወይም ‘አፕሪል ዘ ፉል’ መስሎን እውነተኛውን ዜና ስንጠብቅ ይኧው አንድ ዓመት አለፈን። ይባስ ብሎ አሸንጉሊት እና ማሰብ የተሳናቸውን ባለስልጣናት አበዛልን፤ መቸም ለዚህ ተመስገን አይባል። ☺በዘር፣ በቋንቋ፣ በባህል፣ በሀይማኖት እና በብዙ የተለያዩ መንገዶች ህዝብን ከህዝብ መለየት፣ ወዳጆችን ማጋጨት፣ ቂመኞችን በማበረታታና በማደራጀት በወገናቸው ላይ ግፍ እንዲፈፅሙ ማድረግ፤ በቃ በማንኛውም መንገድ ልዩነትን ማስፋት የሁልጊዜ አጀንዳው የሆነ መንግስት ይህችን ታላቅ እና ታሪካዊ ሀገር በብረት እየመራ ይገኛል።
የኢትዮጵያ መንግስት የህዝብ መንግስት አይደለም!
በቅርብ ጊዜያት ግን በተለያዩ መንገዶች በህዝቡ ዘንድ ተቀባይነት ያለው መንግስት እንዳልሆነ እየተመለከትን ያለንበት ሁሌታ ነው ያለው። ለዚህም ብዙም ሳንርቅ በኦሮሚያ ለአመታት እየተካሄደ የነበረው የህዝብ ጥያቄ (በሰላማዊም በአመፃዊም)፡ ትልቅ ማሳያ ነው። በተጨማሪም ከቅርቡ በተለያዩ የሀገሪቱ ክፍሎች የህዝብ ድምፅ እየጎላና እየተስተጋባ ይገኛል። ለምሳሌ በጎንደር ከተማ የተካሄደው ሰላማዊ ሰልፍ ከንግር በላይ ነው፤ ምክንያቱም ህዝቡ መብቱን በሀይል ሲከለከል በሰላማዊ መንገድ ጥያቄዬን ሳላሰማ አመለስም በማለት ወደ አደባባይ በመውጣት ተኝተው ለነበሩት የማንቂያ ደውል ተባባሪ ለፈለጉት ደግሞ መልካም ዜናን በማወጅ ለአዲሱ ሰላማዊ ትግል ትልቅ አስዋፅኦ አድርጓል።
df31312b1e90443589d625acb5c29f17_18
መንግስት የህዝብ ነው፤ ህዝብ የመንግስት አይደለም።
የቄሳርን ለቄሳር የህዝብን ለህዝብ!ለጊዜው የቄሳሩን ትተን የህዝቡን እናውራው። ብሶት የወለደው የህወሓት ሰራዊት ሀገሪቱን ከወታደራዊው ደርግ በመንጠቅ ወደሌላ ወታደራዊ አገዛዝ ቀየረው። ለዚህም እንዲረዳው የተለያዩ መንገዶችን በመጠቀም ይህችን ታላቅ ሀገር ከላይ በጠቀኳቸው መንገዶች ከፋፈላት፤ ይኧውም ለ25 ዓመታት በስልጣን ላይ ይገኛል። ከታሪካዊው የትግራይ ህዝብ የወጣው ነገር ግን ታሪካዊ ስሀተት እየሰራ ያለው መንግስት የአብላጫውን የትግራይ ህዝብ ሊወክል ይችል ይሆናል፤ ይህ ደግሞ ምንም ክፋት የለውም። ነገር ግን በመላው ሀገሪቱ ላይ ለመግዛት እንዲመቸው ኢህአዴግ በሚል ሌላ ቅፅል ስም ወደ ምርጫ በመምጣትና በራሱ ማጣሪያ የተለያዩ ብሄሮችን ይወክላሉ ያላቸውን የህዝብ መሰል የፖለቲካ ፓርቲዎች በማቋቋም መንግስት መሰረተ፤ በአምስት አመት አንድ ጊዜ ደግሞ በራሱ ምርጫ አሸናፊነቱን እንዲነግረው የራሱ የሆነ የምርጫ ቦርድ አቋቋመ።በቃ ምን አለፋቹ ሁሌም ምርጫ አለ ሁሌም አንድ አሸናፊ አለ፤ ስሙም ህወሓት ይባላል። ለምን እንደሆነ እንጃ ብቻ ሁሌም ቢሆን በጫካ ስሙ መጠራቱን ይወደዋል።ታዲያ የህዝብ ሊሆን የተገባው ነፃነት ላይ ማን እየተጠቀመበት ነው? ደም አፍስሰን ነው እዚህ የደረስነው ይሉናል፥ ታዲያ የህዝብን ደም ለምን ታፈሳላቹ? የህዝብን ጥያቄ ለመመለስ ነው የመጣነው ይሉናል፥ ታዲያ የየትኛውን ህዝብ ጥያቄ ነው የመለሳችሁት?ነው ወይስ የታላቋን የትግራይን መንግስት ለመመስረት በቂ የሆነ የህዝብ ቂም እያከማቻችሁ ነው?
ethiopians-call-for
የህዝብን ስልጣን ወደ ህዝብ!
የትግራይ ህዝብ የመረጣችሁ ምርጫ ኖሮት ሳይሆን ቋንቋውን የሚናገርለት ከራሱ ጓሮ የበቀለ የአመፅ ቡድን አንድ ብቻ ስለነበረ ነው፥ እርሱም ህወሓት ይባላል፤ ሲተነተን ህዝበ ወያኔ ሓርነት ትግራይ ፦ የትግራይ ህዝብ ነፃ አውጪ እንደማለት ነው። ስለዚህ አማራጭ አለበረም ቶሎ ተቀባይነት አገኘ። ነገር ግን በየጊዜው የተለያዪ የፖለቲካ ፓርቲዎች ከትግራይ ህዝብ የወጡ ነገር ግን በህወሓት የተደመሰሱ ብዙ ናቸው። ወደታላቋ ሀገራችን ስንመጣ ግን በተገኙት አጋጣሚዎች፣ ምርጫዎች፣ የህዝብ ስብሰባዎች ሁሉ መሪው መንግስት የህዝብ ድጋፍ እንደሌለው እና በሀይል ሲገዛ እንደኖረ ለማረጋገጥ የማይረሱ የቅርብ ጊዜ ዜናዎችን መመልከት በቂ ነው።
በቃ ማለት በቃ ነው!
ይህ መንግስት አሁንም የህዝብን ድምፅ ለመስማት ዝግጁ አይደለም እንዲያውም እየጨቆነና ትላንት ካደረጋቸው የጭካኔ ተግባራት ይልቅ ብሶበት እና ጨምሮ እየተገኘ ነው፤ እንዲያውም ብዙዎች ካለፈው ወታደራዊ መንግት ጋር ያነፃፅሩታል። ሰሚ ካለ ይስማ፥ መንግት የህዝብ ነው እንጂ ህዝብ የመንግስት አይደለም።
የፅሁፉ ዋና አላማ የህዝብን ሀሳብ ለመጋራት እንጂ የየትኛውንም የፖለቲካ ፓርቲ ሀሳብ ለመደገፍ አይደለም።

MORE THAN 700 AFRICAN ILLEGALS ALLOWED TO TRAVEL THROUGH PANAMA EN ROUTE TO U.S. THIS YEAR

The number of Africans who have illegally traveled through Panama on their way to the United Sates has more than doubled so far this year, reaching more than 700, according to a Spanish-language news report.

That figure only accounts for those who have been apprehended by Panamanian authorities. When apprehended the immigrants are not deported. They are allowed to pass through instead. The illegals spend no longer than a week in Panama.

According to an August 8 report by the Spanish EFE news agency that went largely unnoticed by English-language media, in 2015 alone, “708 Africans have crossed the Darien jungle [in Panama] in search of the American dream.”

In just one year, the number of immigrants from Africa who have traveled illegally through Panama on their way to the United Sates has increased by 134 percent, adds that report.

“They were not deported because it is difficult to do so. Their countries of origin have no diplomatic representation in Panama and the process becomes complicated. In addition they are in transit, so you let them go,” Domingo Flores, the migration supervisor for the areas of Darien and San Blas, told EFE.

The migrant and economic crisis affecting Europe and the open door policy of some Latin American countries such as Ecuador, are behind this “abysmal” surge of immigrants, explained Frank Abrego, the chief of Panama’s National Border Service.

Many African immigrants are choosing to travel through the “inhospitable and hostile” Panamanian jungle to reach the United States, rather than cross into Europe through the Sahara desert and the Mediterranean Sea, described as a “cemetery,” notes the report.

“The United States is better than Europe, there are more opportunities for us there, and it is much safer. The [Mediterranean] sea and the Sahara desert (Morocco) are extremely dangerous,” an Eritrean told EFE in perfect English, choosing not to give his name.

The vast majority of Africans traveling through Central America are males from Somalia, a failed state troubled by famine and Islamist terrorism, adds EFE.

“I almost died. That jungle is hell,” added Abdi Wahab Ali Osman, a 29-year-old Somalian, describing his journey through Panama’s Darien territory, nearly 8,000 square miles of tropical rainforest along the Colombia-Panama border controlled by drug traffickers and guerrillas from Colombia.

Somalia, Eritrea, and other African countries are found on a list of 35 nations described in a November 2004 U.S. Customs and Border Patrol (CBP) memo as “special interest countries.”

The inspector general for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security described special interest countries as those “that have shown a tendency to promote, produce, or protect terrorist organizations or their members.”

Human trafficking “mafias” charge the African immigrants who end up traveling through Panama between $3,000 and $4,000 for an airline ticket to Brazil and Ecuador. From there, they travel to the border between Colombia and Panama where they encounter the immense and roadless Darien jungle, where they have to travel by foot for four or five days.

The human traffickers “wait for no man,” an 18-year-old man from Somalia told EFE on condition of anonymity.

Many immigrants die in the Darien jungle, “defeated by fatigue and the elements,” reports the Spanish news agency.

Africans are not the only foreign nationals trying to reach the U.S. through the Panamanian rain forest. Many of them are from Nepal.

According to a Panamanian border agency, 215 Nepalese immigrants crossed the Darien jungle in just the last two weeks of July, 150 more than during the same period in 2014.

During the Ebola outbreak in Africa last year, Gen. John Kelly, commander of U.S. Southern Command, warned that a “large percentage” of illegal immigrants attempting to enter the United States through Mexico are from West Africa.

He noted that West Africans are traveling through Central America on their way to the United States.

In March 2015, Gen. Kelly cautioned that Islamic extremists could exploit the knowledge of human trafficking organizations in Latin America to infiltrate the U.S.

He added that foreign nationals from countries like Somalia, where Islamist terrorist groups such as al Qaeda and al Shabaab are known to operate, could be seeking to enter the U.S. to do Americans harm.

Gen. Kelly mentioned that a group of Liberians were spotted on the Costa Rica-Nicaragua border on their way into the U.S. illegally. Costa Rica borders Panama.

Breitbart News, citing a leaked report from the Texas Department of Public Safety (DPS), reported that illegal aliens from Somalia with ties to terrorist organizations have been working to bring other suspected terrorists into America through the Texas border.

In 2014, at least 474 illegals from terrorist-linked countries, some of them located in Africa, were apprehended trying to enter the U.S.

The brutal dictatorship the world keeps ignoring

On Monday, the United Nations released the results of a year-long investigation into human rights in Eritrea. What it found was horrific. Detailing “systematic, widespread and gross human rights violations,” the U.N. commission of inquiry argued that Eritrea was operating a totalitarian government with no accountability and no rule of law.

“The commission also finds that the violations in the areas of extrajudicial executions, torture (including sexual torture), national service and forced labor may constitute crimes against humanity,” the report said.

However, it appears the report failed to produce any mainstream outrage. Unlike similar U.N. reports on alleged crimes against humanity in North Korea, or online criticism of human rights abuses in places such as Saudi Arabia or Qatar, the horrific accusations against Eritrea didn’t produce a viral outcry.

Why not? It certainly doesn’t seem to be because of the severity of the accusations. Crimes against humanity are pretty much as serious as you can get, and it’s hard to read the United Nations’ full report and not be shocked.

It’s hard to imagine now, but hopes were initially high for Eritrea in 1993 after it gained independence from Ethiopia after 30 years of civil war. Since then, however, President Isaias Afwerki has clamped down and allowed no room for an opposition. The U.N. report described a Stasi-like police state that leaves Eritreans in constant fear that they are being monitored.

“When I am in Eritrea, I feel that I cannot even think because I am afraid that people can read my thoughts and I am scared,” one witness told the U.N. inquiry.

The system leads to arbitrary arrests and detention, with torture and even enforced disappearances a part of life in Eritrea, the U.N. probe found, and even those who commit no perceived crime often end up in arduous and indefinite national service that may amount to forced labor. Escape is not a realistic option for many: Those who attempt to flee the country are considered “traitors,” and there is a shoot-to-kill policy on the border, the report said.

A drawing provided to the U.N. by an Eritrean torture survivor.

A drawing provided to the U.N. by an Eritrean torture survivor

It’s also worth noting the significant effort and risk put into creating the report: The Eritrean government refused to allow the United Nations access to the country to investigate, so the U.N. team interviewed more than 550 witnesses in third countries and accepted 160 written submissions. Many approached by the United Nations declined to give testimony, even anonymously, citing a justifiable fear of reprisal.

Still, experts don’t seem too surprised at the lack of outrage generated by the report. “Clearly, Eritrea doesn’t capture the imagination, or rouse the conscience of Americans, much in the way North Korea does,” Jeffrey Smith, an advocacy officer at the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights, explained. “President Afwerki, while unquestionably a chronic human rights abuser and eccentric despot, isn’t portrayed by the American media in the same way that Kim Jong Un is.”

“North Korea also makes headlines for other reasons — namely its nuclear ambitions and the ongoing threat it poses to regional stability in East Asia,” he added. “Similarly, while Eritrea is certainly a police state similar to North Korea in many ways, it’s largely kept out of the headlines because Africa in general doesn’t feature highly on the agenda of policymakers here in the United States.”

The fact is, while the scope and authority of the U.N. report lent its allegations an added weight, academics and human rights researchers had long written similar things about the Eritrean state without a significant mainstream response in America or Europe.

In 2014, for instance Human Rights Watch called Eritrea “among the most closed countries in the world” and pointed to “indefinite military service, torture, arbitrary detention, and severe restrictions on freedoms of expression, association, and religion.” Reporters Without Borders has repeatedly ranked it as the worst country in the world for press freedom — worse even than North Korea.

“The U.N. report? We knew it already,” said Ismail Einashe, a Somali-British journalist who works with Eritrean migrants. “Too little, too late.”

Despite this, some reports on the country ignore this and focus on another aspect of Eritrea: Its unlikely tourism sector. International isolation, a history as an Italian colony and reported Qatari investment may have made Eritrea a unique if distasteful vacation destination: As one travel blogger put it last year, the capital of “Asmara felt much more like Naples than North Korea.”

Sara Dorman, an expert in African politics at Edinburgh University, doesn’t think much of either comparison.

“I don’t think it’s particularly helpful,” she said of the country’s reputation as the “North Korea of Africa.” At the same time, she stressed that Eritrea really does deserve to be seen as a special case. “As somebody who studies authoritarian regimes elsewhere in Africa, the Eritrean regime’s control over its population is qualitatively different than other African states,” Dorman said, before pointing to features such as the scale of Eritrea’s intelligence service and the practice of punishing entire families for the crimes of one member.

There are plenty of historical arguments for why the world should pay more attention to what’s happening in Eritrea. Former colonial rulers Italy and Britain have an obvious legacy there, and so does the United States, which allowed Ethiopia to incorporate Eritrea with the aim of keeping the U.S. Kagnew Station military base in the country. In addition, Eritrea has a difficult recent history with its East African neighbors: It’s currently under U.N. sanctions for supporting al-Shabab, the Somali Islamist group, and others in the region.

But one important reason to pay attention has become an unavoidable reality for Europe. Eritreans make up a large share of the migrants crossing the Mediterranean in flimsy boats to seek asylum in Europe: More than 22 percent of those who made the journey in 2014 were from the country, according to the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees, second only to Syrians. They flee not because of a civil war like that in Syria, but because of the immense restrictions the Eritrean state puts on their lives. As one escaped Eritrean put it, life there is a “psychological prison.”

Despite this, a number of European nations have recently tightened the restrictions on Eritrean migrants, many citing a Danish immigration reportfrom last November that prompted criticism from human rights groups. The European Union is also considering increasing the amount of aid it sends to Eritrea via the European Development Fund. Experts like Dorman hope that the U.N. report may lead some in Europe to reconsider.

“If organizations don’t take note of this report, we really have to wonder about how they make these decisions,” she said.

Still, even if they don’t, the report does have one very vocal audience: The Eritrean government and pro-government media. In a statement published on Tuesday, Eritrea called the U.N. report a”cynical political travesty” that was an attack “not so much on the government, but on a civilized people and society who cherish human values and dignity.”


Source: WP

Difference between Tyranny and Dictatorship

Difference between dictatorship and tyranny

Conceptual Background

Delving deep in to the history of state governance would tell us that no negative connotations were attached to the two words; tyranny & dictatorship. In ancient Greece, rulers of city states traditionally held the title ‘tyrant’, and the subjects never had any reservation for the same, as no negativity was stigmatized to it. In Athens, before democracy set foot there, the last tyrant ruler was particularly unfair in using power, and the term got a bad name. Subsequently Plato and his followers, by their political discourse, gave permanence to the attachment.

On the other hand, in Republican Rome, a dictator was a senate appointed constitutional incumbent who held absolute power in matters of governance as well as military duties. Titus Flavus was the first dictator of Republican Rome. Augustus Caesar was the last dictator of Rome, who killed his dictator-grandfather, and this act of him gave a bad rap to the term ‘dictator’.

Difference in Meaning

Dictator: A dictator is the head of a government which is run according to the will of the dictator, who acquires power without the consent of the people and is aided by a bunch of loyalists. Under dictatorship all political power is monopolised by the dictator, and the pillars of governance namely judiciary, administration, and legislature are controlled by him and run by the coterie. Dictatorship is an authoritarian form of government where both public and private lives of citizens are subject to scrutiny and regulation by the government. All voices of resent are brutally suppressed by the dictator, through private militia or state force. Adolf Hitler of Germany, Idi Amin of Uganda, Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran, Saddam Hussein of Iraq, and Aga Khan of Pakistan are few of the world in-famous dictators.

Tyranny: Tyranny is a form of government where the head of the government possesses very oppressive and ruthless character, and often looks after his own interest instead that of the subjects. The administration, judiciary, and legislature are controlled by people hand-picked by him. History is witness to the fact of many monarchs turning tyrant due to greed and oppressive character. The tyrant rules his subjects through the weapons of fear, and torture. Tyranny is supposedly worst form of governance, where the ruler is corrupted to thefullest. All the tyrants are filthy rich, where the wealth is amassed through all possible illegal ways imaginable. Pol Pot of Cambodia, Pinochet of Chile, Henry VIII of England, Genghis Khan of Mongolia, Saddam Hussein of Iraq, and Caligula of Rome are some of the worst tyrants the world has seen.

Qualitative Difference

A dictator may rise to power either in a democratic set-up, or through an armed coup, often by ambitious military officers. Such leaders definitely possess leadership quality to launch an armed offensive against the ruler. Initially, after coming to power, such leaders have been seen to implement strict discipline into the society, and take measures to bring in financial accountability in governance. But dictatorial power, politics of appeasement, lure to become rich and live 5-star life-style ultimately make the dictator a tyrant, when he starts to consider his whims as law and destiny of the citizens. The tyrant takes all possible measures to silence any voice or resent and large-scale elimination takes place.

A military dictator initially rules by law, stifling personal freedom of people, but may not nurse any personal financial-ambition. But after staying in power for a long time, all the administrative and military posts are filled by people chosen by the dictator so that governance becomes smooth and conducive to serve self interest, and also seeds of revolt are destroyed at birth. This is when the dictator becomes tyrant. This is what happened to some dictators like Muammar Gaddafi of Libya, Zia Ul Haque and Musharraf of Pakistan, and many others. Thus length of tenure and degree of mis-use of power differentiates between a dictator and a tyrant.

Welfare of the People

A dictator, in the initial years of his rule, may make significant contribution towards economic welfare of the people, with better infrastructure, highly subsidized compulsory education, and health care facilities financed through increased rates and collection of taxes, increased industrial production, and all round discipline in the government. Cuba under Fidel Castro, India under Indira Gandhi, and Pakistan under Zia experienced such things. But tyrants are bereft of any positive contribution towards societal welfare. Idi Amin of Uganda, Henry VIII of England, Stalin of Russia, Pol Pot of Cambodia and many other tyrants will be remembered by the world for the unbearable misery they brought for their subjects.

Summary

A tyrant essentially is a dictator. The difference between a dictator and a tyrant is determined by length of tenure and degree of misuse of power. A dictator assumes power without consent of the people, either through an armed ouster of the ruler or through heredity. He might be a good leader and may bring some prosperity for the people. But as the dictator stays in power for long period, he may become tyrant treating the citizens according to his whims.


Source: The difference between

Ethiopia’s Hot, Nigeria’s Not, for Investors Targeting Africa

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June 5, 2015 — 5:38 AM EDT

Pedestrians at the Merkato open air market in Addis Ababa. Photographer: Simon Dawson/Bloomberg

Africa has a hot new investment destination and it’s not Nigeria.

The buzz at the World Economic Forum on Africa, an annual summit of the continent’s rich and powerful, is all about Ethiopia, where the economy is flourishing and the government is embracing select foreign capital. Executives from General Electric Co., Dow Chemical Co., Standard Bank Group Ltd. and MasterCard Inc. attending the June 3-5 gathering in Cape Town all singled out the East African nation as a market with strong potential.

Ethiopia was Africa’s eighth-largest recipient of foreign direct investment last year, up from 14th position in 2013, a report released by accounting firm EY on June 2 showed. The number of projects in Ethiopia surged 88 percent, the most of all countries ranked, while those in Nigeria slumped 17 percent.

“It’s got a government that is managing economic development in a very deliberate, cautious manner,” Ross McLean, Dow’s president for sub-Saharan Africa, said in an interview on Thursday. “It’s the second-most populous country in Africa. It hasn’t urbanized like other African countries, but it’s going to. It’s a very exciting place.”

Ethiopia’s economy is expected to expand 8.6 percent this year and 8.5 percent in 2016, compared with 10.3 percent growth last year, the International Monetary Fund said in its World Economic Outlook released on April 14. Nigeria, which has Africa’s largest economy and is grappling with energy shortages and the fallout of an oil price slump, is forecast to grow 4.8 percent this year and 5 percent next year.

Construction Boom

Ethiopia’s capital, Addis Ababa, shows all the signs of a construction boom. Private developers are erecting scores of office blocks and luxury housing estates, while the government is clearing slums to build low-cost apartments. Radisson Hotels International Inc. and Marriott International Inc. are among global chains that have opened hotels to cater for an influx of business travelers.

A Chinese-built railway line that snakes alongside the capital’s main roads is part of a nationwide infrastructure development program that’s helping entice investors. In April, Chinese company Huajian Group began work on a $400 million shoe-manufacturing park on Addis Ababa’s southwestern outskirts, while companies including Taiwan’s George Shoe Corp. have opened plants in an industrial zone in the Bole Lemi district.

On Thursday, Dangote Group, the Nigerian company controlled by Aliko Dangote, Africa’s richest man, said it will spend $500 million expanding its cement plant in Ethiopia, adding to $600 million already invested.

Credit Rating

“We’ve done quite a lot of Ethiopian business,” said David Munro, head of corporate and investment banking in Standard Bank, which has applied for a license for a representative office. “We see it as a prospective place to grow our business. There’s the possibility of significant resources and it’s within an economically significant zone, the east African trade area.”

The country was assigned its first credit ratings in May. Moody’s Investors Service rates it a non-investment grade B1 with a stable outlook, while Standard & Poor’s and Fitch Ratings awarded the country a B, one grade lower.

Yields on the nation’s debut $1 billion Eurobond have climbed to 6.77 percent from 6.625 percent when they were sold on December 4.

Obstacles to doing business in Ethiopia remain. The Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Democratic Front has ruled the country for the past two decades and the state continues to dominate the financial services, telecommunications and transport industries. Foreign exchange is in short supply, because the government uses inflows to finance its infrastructure program and exports remain meager.

Poverty Data

Razia Khan, Standard Chartered Plc’s head of Africa macroeconomic research, said Ethiopia’s economy has a “hollow” structure because it doesn’t have a big enough middle class to enhance economic growth.

Only 18 percent of Ethiopia’s 94.1 million people are urbanized and the economy is worth just $48.9 billion, according to the Abidjan, Ivory Coast-based African Development Bank. About 30 percent of the population live in poverty, according to 2010 data from the World Bank, down from 46 percent in 1995.

Pan-African lender Ecobank Transnational Inc. has a representative office in Ethiopia. Equity Group Holdings Ltd., owner of Kenya’s second-biggest bank, will prioritize its Ethiopian business as part of an expansion into nine other African nations, Chief Executive Officer James Mwangi said in an interview in Cape Town.

Dow doubled its sales in Ethiopia last year and sees more growth to come.

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Ethiopia Energy Exports Worth 2.9b Br, Below GTP I Targets

The 10 month report for 2014/2015 showed billions in export and domestic earnings but shortfalls in GTP I targets

Ethiopia exported 606.5GWh of energy to neighbouring countries, amounting to 2.9 billion Br in the first 10 months of 2014/15, though planned exports were estimated at 685GWh.

Production levels during this period rose to 7,923GWh, from the planned 7,462GWh, and generated 3.5 billion Birr from exports to Djibouti and border towns of Kenya and Sudan.

Ethiopia had planned to generate 10,000 megawatts (MW) of electric power by the end of the five years of the GTP I, but so far it has only attained 2,301MW.

The installation of the electric carriage lines in the country was also planned to reach 17,000Km from 11,440Km in 2010/11, currently reaching 12,825Km. Electricity access was also planned to rise to 75pc from 41pc, but now stands at 55pc.

“We have identified 290 Weredas with critical problems and we are working to improve electricity access in these places,” said Alemayehu Tegenu, minister for the Ministry of Water, Irrigation & Energy. “These places have problems related to poles, which we are changing to concrete poles to solve the problem.”

According to Bezuneh Tolcha, Communications Director at the MoWIE, the lag in the accessibility of the rural part of the country is attributed to the time taken to organise associations that can produce poles and make installations in every region,.

The Ministry had organised 139 associations for the production of concrete poles and 129 associations for the installation of electric lines.

The wooden poles are not suitable in marshy areas while the concrete ones are suitable for every kind of topography, according to Bezuneh, who added that the poles were now ready for distribution.

The government has seven ongoing power projects, with which it was to attain its target of 10,000MW. But only the Gibe III hydropower plant, which generates 1,870MW, and the Adama II wind farm, which generates 51MW are near completion, at 90.3pc and 93pc, respectively.

The construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, which is planned to generate 6,000MW of electricity, has reached 42.5pc completion. Genale Dawa III, hydro electric power plant which has the capacity of generating 254MW of electricity, has reached 73.8pc completion and the Repi landfill site, where the plan is to generate 50MW, has reached 59.6pc.

The two thermal power projects – Melka Sidina Bamza and Aluto Geothermal Project, are 17.7pc and 72.8pc complete.

“We are giving priority to basic issues of power demand, such as areas with water pumps and health centres,” said Minister Alemayehu. “The others like mills and hotels will be addressed after these are done.”

In the fiscal year 2014/15, the country had planned to give electricity access to 1,570 towns and communities while the actual performance was 562 towns and communities, attaining a mere 36pc of the plan. The Ministry had also planned to install 21,980Km of medium and small capacity electric lines but accomplished only 33pc of its performance goal.


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