One Diagram That Will Change the Way You Look At the world Economy

21 July 2015

The US is by far the largest economy in the World, with a nominal GDP of $17.4 trillion in 2014.However, it is not the World leader in all economic sectors: the US is a service-based economy, with a smaller focus on agriculture and industry than other countries (though its industrial and agricultural sectors are still the second- and third-largest in the World due to the sheer size of the US economy).

The graphic above (Voroni diagram) represents the relative size of each country’s economy in terms of nominal GDP: the larger the area, the larger the size of the economy. The areas are further divided into three sectors: services, industrial, and agricultural. The US economy is mostly composed of companies engaged in providing services (79.7% compared to the global average of 63.6%), while agriculture and industry make up smaller-than-average of portions of the economy (1.12% and 19.1% compared to averages of 5.9% and 30.5%).

The next largest economy, China, is roughly balanced between industry and services (though the service sector is growing at a faster rate), with a 9.1% contribution from agriculture. In this sense, China is a bit of an anomaly: other rich countries have service sectors that greatly outweigh both industry and agriculture. Over the past several decades, China has leveraged its competitive advantage and designed industrial policies to incent manufacturing in the country. But as China grows, it will continue to transition to a service-based economy. Similarly, India will see a decrease in agriculture’s contribution to its GDP and an increase in the size of the service sector.

Over time, the service sectors of developed nations have tended to grow relative to the other sectors. But are there limits to this trend? What is the natural size of each sector?

If you have any thoughts on this subject, drop us a line! We would love your feedback.

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The 2015 edition of the ranking has been released

The Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) publishes the only global university ranking that measures the quality of education and training of students as well as the prestige of the faculty members and the quality of their research without relying on surveys and university data submissions.
CWUR uses eight objective and robust indicators to rank the world’s top 1000 universities:

1) Quality of Education, measured by the number of a university’s alumni who have won major international awards, prizes, and medals relative to the university’s size [25%]
2) Alumni Employment, measured by the number of a university’s alumni who have held CEO positions at the world’s top companies relative to the university’s size [25%]
3) Quality of Faculty, measured by the number of academics who have won major international awards, prizes, and medals [25%]
4) Publications, measured by the number of research papers appearing in reputable journals [5%]
5) Influence, measured by the number of research papers appearing in highly-influential journals [5%]
6) Citations, measured by the number of highly-cited research papers [5%]
7) Broad Impact, measured by the university’s h-index [5%]
8) Patents, measured by the number of international patent filings [5%]
In addition to providing consultation for governments and universities, the Center for World University Rankings aims to provide the most comprehensive university rankings available, which are trusted by students, academics, university administrators, and government officials from around the world.

We have listed the top 20 and the last 20 universities from the ranking.

Top 20 Universities

Top 20 Universities

Last 20 Universities

Last 20 Universities

Difference between Tyranny and Dictatorship

Difference between dictatorship and tyranny

Conceptual Background

Delving deep in to the history of state governance would tell us that no negative connotations were attached to the two words; tyranny & dictatorship. In ancient Greece, rulers of city states traditionally held the title ‘tyrant’, and the subjects never had any reservation for the same, as no negativity was stigmatized to it. In Athens, before democracy set foot there, the last tyrant ruler was particularly unfair in using power, and the term got a bad name. Subsequently Plato and his followers, by their political discourse, gave permanence to the attachment.

On the other hand, in Republican Rome, a dictator was a senate appointed constitutional incumbent who held absolute power in matters of governance as well as military duties. Titus Flavus was the first dictator of Republican Rome. Augustus Caesar was the last dictator of Rome, who killed his dictator-grandfather, and this act of him gave a bad rap to the term ‘dictator’.

Difference in Meaning

Dictator: A dictator is the head of a government which is run according to the will of the dictator, who acquires power without the consent of the people and is aided by a bunch of loyalists. Under dictatorship all political power is monopolised by the dictator, and the pillars of governance namely judiciary, administration, and legislature are controlled by him and run by the coterie. Dictatorship is an authoritarian form of government where both public and private lives of citizens are subject to scrutiny and regulation by the government. All voices of resent are brutally suppressed by the dictator, through private militia or state force. Adolf Hitler of Germany, Idi Amin of Uganda, Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran, Saddam Hussein of Iraq, and Aga Khan of Pakistan are few of the world in-famous dictators.

Tyranny: Tyranny is a form of government where the head of the government possesses very oppressive and ruthless character, and often looks after his own interest instead that of the subjects. The administration, judiciary, and legislature are controlled by people hand-picked by him. History is witness to the fact of many monarchs turning tyrant due to greed and oppressive character. The tyrant rules his subjects through the weapons of fear, and torture. Tyranny is supposedly worst form of governance, where the ruler is corrupted to thefullest. All the tyrants are filthy rich, where the wealth is amassed through all possible illegal ways imaginable. Pol Pot of Cambodia, Pinochet of Chile, Henry VIII of England, Genghis Khan of Mongolia, Saddam Hussein of Iraq, and Caligula of Rome are some of the worst tyrants the world has seen.

Qualitative Difference

A dictator may rise to power either in a democratic set-up, or through an armed coup, often by ambitious military officers. Such leaders definitely possess leadership quality to launch an armed offensive against the ruler. Initially, after coming to power, such leaders have been seen to implement strict discipline into the society, and take measures to bring in financial accountability in governance. But dictatorial power, politics of appeasement, lure to become rich and live 5-star life-style ultimately make the dictator a tyrant, when he starts to consider his whims as law and destiny of the citizens. The tyrant takes all possible measures to silence any voice or resent and large-scale elimination takes place.

A military dictator initially rules by law, stifling personal freedom of people, but may not nurse any personal financial-ambition. But after staying in power for a long time, all the administrative and military posts are filled by people chosen by the dictator so that governance becomes smooth and conducive to serve self interest, and also seeds of revolt are destroyed at birth. This is when the dictator becomes tyrant. This is what happened to some dictators like Muammar Gaddafi of Libya, Zia Ul Haque and Musharraf of Pakistan, and many others. Thus length of tenure and degree of mis-use of power differentiates between a dictator and a tyrant.

Welfare of the People

A dictator, in the initial years of his rule, may make significant contribution towards economic welfare of the people, with better infrastructure, highly subsidized compulsory education, and health care facilities financed through increased rates and collection of taxes, increased industrial production, and all round discipline in the government. Cuba under Fidel Castro, India under Indira Gandhi, and Pakistan under Zia experienced such things. But tyrants are bereft of any positive contribution towards societal welfare. Idi Amin of Uganda, Henry VIII of England, Stalin of Russia, Pol Pot of Cambodia and many other tyrants will be remembered by the world for the unbearable misery they brought for their subjects.


A tyrant essentially is a dictator. The difference between a dictator and a tyrant is determined by length of tenure and degree of misuse of power. A dictator assumes power without consent of the people, either through an armed ouster of the ruler or through heredity. He might be a good leader and may bring some prosperity for the people. But as the dictator stays in power for long period, he may become tyrant treating the citizens according to his whims.

Source: The difference between

Divine Ethiopia

Its landscapes are biblical and its rituals haven’t changed for centuries. But amid the cave churches and primitive tribes are new lodges – and helicopters (or donkeys) to reach them

Sunday Service in the church of Abuna Yemata Guh  requires nerves of steel. Yet they assured me the congregations were good. “Don’t worry,” the priest fussed. “Pregnant women are attending, old people are attending, tiny children are attending.”

I wasn’t sure I would be attending. I was standing on a narrow ledge. Below me was a 1,000ft drop to the valley floor. Somewhere above me, beyond a sheer polished cliff, was the church. My legs felt like water. I was sweating in places I had never sweated before. At that moment, the eye of a needle seemed easier to negotiate. “You must try,” the priest whispered. “God is watching.”

There are moments when Ethiopia seems to belong to an atlas of the imagination – part legend, part fairy-tale, part Old Testament book, part pulling your leg. In this land of wonders there are medieval castles of a black Camelot, monasteries among Middle Earth peaks accessible only by rope and chains, the ruined palace of the Queen of Sheba and the original Ten Commandments in a sealed box guarded by mute monks with killer instincts.

In the northern highlands priests with white robes and shepherds’ crooks appear to have stepped out of a Biblical painting. In the southern river valleys bare-breasted tribeswomen, who scar their torsos for erotic effect and insert plates the size of table mats in their lower lips, seemed to have emerged from a National Geographic magazine circa 1930. Ethiopia “resembles no other country in Africa”, wrote the great explorer Wilfred Thesiger, “or anywhere else.”

Its isolation is legendary. Not only was Ethiopia never colonised, but it also inflicted the greatest defeat on a European army in the history of the continent – at the Battle of Adwa in 1896. It was only the Italians, of course, but it still counts. Ethiopians were “forgetful of the world”, Edward Gibbon wrote, “by whom they were forgotten”. For long medieval centuries Europeans believed that Ethiopia was home to Prester John, legendary Christian ruler, descendant of one of the three Magi, keeper of the Fountain of Youth, protector of the Holy Grail, and all-round good guy who would one day rescue the Holy Land from the Muslims.

Crossing the threshold of the church of Medhane Alem in Lalibela , I seemed to step back a thousand years. Cut by shafts of dusty light from high windows, the interior gloom was scented with frankincense. I came round a pillar to find a dozen priests leaning on their croziers, chanting in Ge’ez , a language no one has spoken since the Middle Ages. The sound was a curious cross between Gregorian plainsong and a nasal Arabic call to prayer. These were among the earliest Christian rites, unchanged for well over 1,500 years. Worshippers sat on the ground against the bare stone walls, wearing clothes that wouldn’t have been out of place in the Book of Genesis. They gazed mournfully at a pair of threadbare theatrical curtains. Beyond the curtains lay the inner sanctum, the Holy of Holies , which held the Ark of the Covenant .

For a country with so much to offer, it is surprising to find tourism in Ethiopia still in its infancy. The war and famine of the 1970s and 80s, though now almost ancient history, may be partly responsible. But a deeper issue may be a feature of the national character – a lack of entrepreneurial urgency. Ethiopia may not be big on stylish boutiques hotels, littered with objets d’art and architectural magazines, but it is a delightfully old-fashioned place, with ravishing landscapes, sleepy villages and friendly, unhurried people.

It is difficult to pick a single destination from Ethiopia’s treasure chest, but first-time visitors shouldn’t miss Lalibela and its remarkable churches, all below ground level, and all carved from the rock as entire buildings with surrounding courtyards, exterior walls and roofs. Historians are uncertain about much of their history but Ethiopians have a handle on it. A celestial team of angels came in at night to help out after the terrestrial workforce had clocked off.

There are always two histories in Ethiopia: the history of historians, sometimes a trifle vague, often tentative; and the history of Ethiopians, a people’s history, confident, detailed, splendid, often fantastical. The two rarely coincide. Historians are still wringing their hands about the mysteries of Aksum  in Tigray  in the north, with its colossal stelae, its underground tombs, its ruined palaces and its possible connections to the Queen of Sheba. For a thousand years, until about AD 700, it was a dominant power in the region, “the last of the great civilisations of antiquity”, according to Neville Chittick , the archaeologist, “to be revealed to modern knowledge”.

Fortunately, the Ethiopians are on hand to fill in most of the historical blanks. The city was founded, they say, by the great-grandson of Noah. For 400 years it was ruled by a serpent who enjoyed a diet of milk and virgins. Historians may be divided about the Queen of Sheba but Ethiopians know she set off from here to Jerusalem with 797 camels and lot of rather racy lingerie to seduce King Solomon. Historians carelessly lost track of the Ten Commandments not long after Moses came down from Mount Sinai. Ethiopians have the originals under lock and key in a chapel in Aksum, guarded by those mute monks, assigned to kill all intruders.

The landscapes of Tigray are appropriately Biblical. It is a world where everything comes and goes by foot or hoof, a world of timeless villages perched beneath vast mesas and plunging ravines, a world where it is possible to imagine startling young men turning water into wine. With my bag loaded onto a Palm Sunday donkey, I set off on a three-day walk down the Erar Valley . I strolled through the latticed shade of eucalyptus trees, past scented banks of sage and mint, past stands of prickly pear and neatly ploughed fields framed by irrigation channels. I rested under the shade of vast fig trees beneath colonies of hornbills, bee-eaters and firefinches. A man in a white robe was winnowing wheat, tossing yellow forkfuls into the air, allowing the wind to take the chaff. Children ghosted out of orchards with home-made toys: a ball of goatskin and twine, a doll of twigs and wool. In the late morning I passed people coming back from the weekly market, two hours’ walk away. They were carrying some of life’s essentials: bags of rice, new sickles, bolts of bright cloth, blocks of salt that had come up from the Danakil Desert  by camel caravan. Everyone stopped to greet me with handshakes and smiles.

The trek was part of a new community project. The guides and the transport – my faithful donkey – were provided by local villagers who, with the help of NGOs, have also built hedamos,  or guesthouses. There is something special about these Tigrayan guesthouses – their location. Tigray is a mountainous region, characterised by ambas: dramatic, sheer-sided, flat-topped mountains. Most of the treks are easygoing, following the valley floors through pastoral landscapes. But towards the end of each day I started to climb with the guide, following steep paths along narrow rising ledges, to the summits of these anvil-headed ambas.

On the top, we emerged into a whole new world of luminous light and distant views. Here we found our home for the night, the community hedamo, perched in splendid isolation on the lip of a colossal escarpment, perhaps 3,000ft above the landscapes below. The views were breathtaking. We looked straight down, past circling eagles, to the world we had just left – ploughed fields, stone tukuls, eddying sheep, tiny white-robed figures trailing along dust lanes. Farther away, rivers carved swathes of ancient earth, canyons yawned open and valleys tumbled into one another. Farther still, mountains patrolled the horizons. With a slight turn of the head, I took in hundreds of miles.

At Erar and Shimbrety , the stone-built guesthouses, with their little courtyards and roof terraces, were comfortable but basic. Village women prepared delicious Ethiopian dinners that made little concession to Western tastes. The loos, Western-style, were in spartan huts. Washing facilities were wooden buckets of warm water. There was no electricity, just lanterns and candles. Yet these felt like the most luxurious places I had ever stayed. It was the luxury of unique experience, of meeting local villagers on their own ground, of engaging with an ancient way of life, of being far from tourism’s well-trodden trails. And it was the luxury of spectacular location. I have never been anywhere with more stunning views.

At Erar, night came with equatorial suddenness. A troop of gelada baboons , 30 or so strong, made their way home across the summit of the amba after a day’s feeding. They climbed down over the edge of the escarpment to precipitous ledges where they would be safe from leopards. The sun set over distant, mythical-looking mountains. When I turned round, a fat full moon was rising directly behind me. The world seemed to be in perfect balance.

Tigray, too, has its remarkable buildings. Scattered across these mountains are more than 120 ancient churches, most excavated in remote rock-faces like caves. Until the 1960s they were virtually unknown to the outside world. Older than the churches at Lalibela, they are little understood by historians. Which means we are left with the fabulous oral history of the Ethiopians.

Abuna Yemata Guh  is one of the more challenging churches to reach. A rock butte soared above us; I was getting a crick in my neck and a serious case of vertigo just looking at it. I imagined, as with the sheer-sided ambas, that there would be some circuitous path, some scrambling route to the top. It was only when we had trekked up from the valley floor and gained the narrow ledge that I began to realise I was going to have to climb a cliff-face, in fact several cliff-faces, to get to church.

A priest was waiting on the ledge, with the kind of morbid face usually reserved for the last rites. He advised me to remove my shoes and socks; bare feet would give me a better grip. It turned out that two men, who I had assumed to be casual passers-by, were in fact there to try to prevent me from plummeting to my death.

We started to climb. My two assistants, one above and one below, guided me to precarious foot- and hand-holds. This was rock climbing without the ropes, the safety harness or the Chris Bonington confidence. Spread-eagled on the cliff-face, clinging to the minor indentations that passed for handholds, I felt a trifle out of my comfort zone. Had I know what was in for, I would probably not have chosen Abuna Yemata Guh for a casual visit.

But once I reached it, I was thrilled I had. The climb might be hair-raising but the church is unmissable.

At the top of the cliff, not daring to look down, I gazed ahead, just in time to see a side-chamber full of bones – the priest insisted they were deceased clerics, not fallen visitors. Then I shuffled along a narrow ledge and came to a cave-like opening. The priest wrestled with a key the size of a cricket bat. A door opened and I stepped into the gloom of the tiny church, hardly larger than a modest drawing room. As my eyes adjusted, I became aware of faces round the walls. Then the priest lit a torch and held it aloft. Suddenly the dark walls were alive with figures: apostles and saints, prophets and the archangels, Mary and the infant Christ. The famous Nine Saints from the Levant , who had brought Christianity to Ethiopia in the fifth century, were here, as was Saint Yared,  who wrote so many of the early Ethiopian chants. The builder of this cliff church was here, Abu Yemata, mounted on a horse and accompanied by his nephew Benjamin, who had painted the murals.

The priest, a humble villager, told me the stories that swarmed across these walls. He told the stories as they had been told to him, as they had been handed down from one priest to the next from the earliest days of the Christian era. He referred to the apostles as if they were old friends. He talked of the saints as if they were men who had known his grandparents. He told me about the groom who had neglected Yemata’s horse. Yemata had turned him into a weasel. There, he said, bringing his torch near to the wall, illuminating a small weasel-headed man beneath the horse.

I asked why the church was here, so difficult to access, so high in these cliffs. The priest said it was for reasons of safety – it may well have been built when Christianity was still vulnerable. Then he added: “We are closer to God here, away from our world, and closer to His.” He lifted an ancient text enclosed in an ox-hide satchel from a nail on the wall. He asked if he should say prayers. I said I thought a few words might be a good idea. After all, I still had to get down that cliff-face.

Journeys by Design (01273 623790; can organise a two-week private journey to Ethiopia, including Lalibela, a three-night trek through northern Tigray staying in Gheralta Lodge, and three nights at Bale Mountain Lodge, from £6,200 per person, excluding international flights. A seven-night helicopter safari to include all of the above, plus a flight to 300ft below sea level in the Danakil Depression, costs from £19,810 per person, based on four sharing a Eurocopter B4.

This feature appears in the summer issue of Ultratravel, the Telegraph’s luxury-travel magazine, available on Saturday May 30

Source: Telegraph

ይድረስ ለታጋይ/ተመራጭ/ እከሌ

ጀግና ማነው?

ሰው ጀግና ሊባል የሚገባው ለህልውናው አደገኛ እና አስጊ የሆነው አውሬ ሲያስወግድ፣ በብዙ ሰዎች ከባድ ተብሎ የተተወዉን ችግር ሲፈታ ወይም ለሰው ልጅ ጠቃሚ የሚሆን ቁምነገር ሲሰራ ነው። ጀግና የሚለውን ስያሜ የምንጠቀመው በተወሰነ ቦታ እና ጊዜ ውስጥ በማህበረሰብ ውስጥ የተለየ ወይም ማንም ሊያደርገው ያልቻለውን ከባድ ድርጊት እና ማንም ለወጣው ያልተቻለውን ፈተና በብቃት ሲወጣው ነው። ይህ ስያሜ በብዙ ማሀበረሰቦች (ሀገራት) እንደ ሽልማት የሚያገለግልና ለድል አድራጊዎች ብቻ የሚሰጥ ነው።

በድሮ ጊዜ በአንድ ህብረተሰብ ላይ ከሚከሰቱና ፈተና ከሚሆኑ ጉዳዮች ውስጥ ሰውን ለማጥቃት ከዱር ወደ መንደሮች የሚገቡት አውሬዎች ከፍተኛ አደጋ ይፈጥራሉ። ከዚህም የተነሳ አውሬውን ገድሎ ሰዎቹን ከጭንቀት የሚገላግል ማንኛውም ሰው እንደ ማህበረሰቡ ጀግና ይቆጠራል፤ የአውሬውንም ቆዳ በመግፈፍ ይለብሰዋል። ሰዎች ከአውሬው ተገፈፈውን ቆዳ ሲመለከቱ የአውሬውን አደገኛነት ሲያስታውሳቸው ቆዳውን ገፍፎ የለበሰውን ሲያዩ ደግሞ ምንያህል ጠንካራ እና ጀግና እንደሆነ ያስተውላሉ። በዚህም ምክንያት በማህበረሰቡ ውስጥ ምርጥ የሆኑ ሽልማቶች ይበረከቱለታል፤ እንደ አስፈላጊነቱም ቆንጆ ኮረዳ ይታጭለታል።

ሰው ክቡር የሆነ ፍጡር መሆኑን እንደ ኢትዮጵያ ባሉ ማለትም የሰውን “አምላካዊ አሻራነት” በሚያምኑ ሀገራት በሰፊው የሚታመን ሃቅ ነው። ነገር ግን አለም ከተፈጠረች ጀምሮ በተለያዩ ጊዜያት በተቃራኒው የሰውን ክቡርነት ጥያቄ ውስጥ የሚከትቱ አሰቃቂ የሆኑ ግድያዎች ተከናውነዋል፤ በዚህ አይነት የታሪክ አጋጣሚ ጀግና ተብለው የተጠሩ ሰዎች ብዙዎች ናቸው። በእርግጥ የተገደለው ሰው ከአውሬ አልፎ ‘ጭራቅ’ የሚል ምናባዊ ስም የወጣለት ጨካኝ ወይም ጨቋኝ ሊሆን ይችል ይሆናል፤ ነገር ግን ምንም እንኳን ይህ ተገዳይ ከፍተኛ ጥፋት በማህበረሰብ፣ በሀገር ላይ ቢያስከትልም ቅሉ፥ ቅን ፍርድ ግን ይገባዋል።

ኧረ ወራጅ አለ! ምንድን ነው የምትለው? ኢትዮጵያ እኮ የጀግኖች ሀገር ናት፤ የጀግኖች ሀገር የተባለችውም ለህልውናዋ፣ ዳር ድንበሯን ለማስከበር፣ ከወራሪ ሀይሎች በጠበቋት ልጆችዋ ነው። ታዲያ ምንድነው የምትለው?

ቅን ፍርድ ምን ማለት ነው?

ቅን ፍርድ ማለት አንድ ሰው ወይም ማህበር (ለክፋት በህቡዕ የተደራጀ) ላደረጋቸው ነገሮች፣ ለተናገራቸውና ላቀዳቸው ሀሳቦች ተመጣጣኝ የሆነ፤ ከማንኛውም ግለሰባዊ ወይም ቡድናዊ መሻት እና ተጽዕኖ ነጻ የሆነ ብይን የሚሰጥበት ትክክለኛው (ideal) የፍርድ አይነት ነው።

ሰው በተፈጥሮው ያለ ስርዓት መኖር የማይችል፥ ኑሮው ሙሉ በሙሉ በስረዓት የተሞላ ፍጥረት ነው። በአንድ ቤት ውስጥ ስርዓት የሚያስከብር አባወራ (እማወራ) እንደሚያስፈልግ ሁሉ በአንድ ሀገር ደግሞ በመሪነት የተሾመ መሪ ያስፈልጋል። በአለማችን ብዙ ነገስታት እና ሀያላን አልፈዋል፤ አሁንም አለምን የሚያስተዳድሩ መልካም እና ክፉ ነገስታት ይገኛሉ። ዋናው ጥያቄ ግን እነዚህን መሪዎች ማን ሾማቸው? እንዴት ስልጣን ያዙ? የሚለው ይሆናል።

አምባገነናዊ ስርዓቶች በኢትዮጵያ

በሀገራችን ላለፉት መቶ አመታት አምስት ያህል መንግስታት/ነገስታት/፥ አፄ ምኒሊክ ፪ኛ፣ ልጅ ኢያሱ፣ ንግስት ዘውዲቱ፣ አፄ ኅይለሥላሴ፣ ሻለቃ መንግስቱ እና መለስ ዜናዊ፥ ብቻ ያለፉ ሲሆን ይህ ቁጥር ከሌሎች ማለትም ከሰለጠኑት የምዕራባውያን ሀገራት አንፃር ሲታይ እጅጉን የተለየ ቁጥር እናያለን። ያለፉት መንግስታት ቁጥር ብቻ ሳይሆን ስልጣን የተሸጋገረበትን መንገድ ስናይ ብዙዎቹ የስልጣን ሽግግሮች በደም የተጨማለቁ እና የብዙዎችን ህይወት በቀጠፉ ረብሻዎች እና ግርግሮች የተሞሉ ነበሩ።

ከአጼ ኀይለ ሥላሴ ከንግስና መሻር አንስቶ ያለውን የስልጣን ሽግግር እንኳን ብንመለከት በብዙዎች ደም መፍሰስ የተመሰረተ ነው። ደርግ በተማሬዎች የተጀመረውን አብዮት ከዴሞክራሲያዊ ጥያቄ ወደ ፖለቲካዊ ፍልስፍና ምርጫ በማላተም የዘመኑን ጥያቄ በጠመንጃ ሲመልስ እና ሀገሪቱን በዘመን የማትረሳውን አስከፊ ታሪክ ጽፎ አልፏል። በተጨማሪም የብዙ ሰዎችን እልቂት ያስከተለውን የረሀብ፣ የእርስ በርስ ጦርነቶችን እና ከፍተኛ የሆነ የማህበራዊ እና ኢኮኖሚያዊ ዝቅጠት ውስጥ አስገብቷታል።

የደርግ አዛዝ ያለተመቻቸው የትግራይ እና የኤርትራ ወጣት ታጋዮች ወደ ትጥቅ ትግል ወስጥ በመግባት በታላቅ መሰረት ላይ ተጥሎ የነበረውን የደርግን ወታደራዊ መንግስት ለመደምሰ እና የኤርትራን መገንጠል ብሎም የአገዛዝ ስርኣት ቅያሬን አስከትሏል። በኤርትራ መገንጠል የተደሰተው የትግራይ ነጻ አውጭ (ወያኔ) ወዲያው ወደ ሀገራዊ ነጻ አውጪነት የፖለቲካ ጨዋታ ጀመረ።

ማንም ነጻ ያውጣ ማንም፡ በጦር አድማ የሚፈሰው ውኃ ሳይሆን የሰው ልጅ ክቡር ደም ነው፤ ለዚያዉም የወንድሞቻችን ደም። የሚያሳዝነው ግን፡ ነጻ አውጭነት ከሚሰጠው ክብር፣ ከጀግንነት ማዕረግ ወይም ሌላ ከህዝብ እውቅና ባለፈ ሌላ ቦታ በመፈለግ ያለፈውን እና የተገረሰሰውን ስርኣት በሚመልስ መልኩ ከህዝቦች እኩልነት ጥያቄ ወደ ክፍፍል አገዛዝ፣ ከፍርድ ጥያቄ ወደ ፍትህ ጉድለት፣ ከሰላም ጥያቄ ወደ እርስ በርስ የማናቆር ቅኝ አገዛዛዊ ሰርዓት በመመለስ ህዝብ በፍርሀት እና ጭንቀት እንዲሞላ እያደረገ ይገኛል።

ይድረስ ለታጋይ እከሌ፡-

ይህችን ፅሁፍ ታነባታለህ ለማለት ይከብደኛል ያው ቢያንስ ከልማታዊ ስራዎችህ የተረፈ ጊዜ ካገኘህ ብዬ በማሰብ ነው የፃፍኳት። እውነቴን ነው ምልህ ደርግን ለመደምሰስ ያደረከውን ትግል አደንቃለሁ፤ ያውም በወታደራዊ አቅም ጠንካራ የነበረውን አስፈሪውን ጦር። እኔ ግን የሚያሳዝነኝ፥ የነፃ አውጪው ወታደር ከህዝብ የወጣ የሀገር ልጅ እደሆነ ስትነግረኝ በጣም አዘንኩኝ እጅጉንም መሪር ሃዘን ውስጥ ገባሁ። አንዴ ብቻ ስማኝ!ለ23 ዓመታት የደሰኮርከው ጀግንነት የገዛ ወንድምህን እና ወገንህን ደም በማፍሰስ እንደሆነ ባለማገናዘብህ ብታፍር ደስታዬ ነው።

ምን??? በለኛ!
እሺ! ለምን መሰለህ፥ ደርግ ዜጎችን በውትድርና አሰልጥኖ ወደ ሀገር መከላከያ ሰራዊትነት ሲያበቃቸው ኢትዮጵያዊነታቸውን አልተነጠቁም፤ ማንም አልካዳቸውምም። እነሱ በደርግ ስርአት ውስጥ የሰለጠኑ የሀገር፣ የህዝብ ልጆች ነበሩ፡ እንጂ የደርግ ውትድርናቸው ማንነታቸውን አልፋቀውም፣ ዜግነታቸውንም አልቀየረውም። ችግሩ ባንተ የነፃ አውጪነት ዲስኩር ህዝቡን ስታደነቁር እና ስትሸነግል ያን ጊዜ ወታደር ልጇ የሞተባት፣ የጥይት የተገደለባት እናት አሁን በፍርሀት እና በጭንቀት ልጆቿን ደብቃ ስታሳድግ፣ ሳትወድ በግድ የፓርቲው አባል እንድትሆን ጓዶችሀ ሲያስገድዷት ሰምቼ፡ ኧረ ግፍ እየተሰራ ነው ብዬ ለማን ልንገር?

እስቲ ሰው የሚልህን ስማ ያንተ ነፃ አውጪነት እንደቄጤማ የብዙ ኢትዮጵያውያን ወጣቶችን ህይወት የቀጠፈ እና አካል ያጎደ ሲሆን  በየአመቱ የምታከብረው የደርግን ከሀይል መወረድ ብቻ ሳይሆን ያለቀባሪ በየሜዳው የአውሬ መጫወቻ የሆኑትን ሀገር ወዳድ ወንድሞችህን ሙት-አመት እንደሆነ ላፍታ እንኳን ብታስብ፥ የወደፊቱን የወታደር ህይወት ትታደጋለህ።
ምክንያቱም አንተም ፡ ዘላለማዊ መሆን አትችልም፥ በምድር ከተወሰነ ጊዜ በላይ መኖር አትችልም – ሟች ነህ ፣ በብርታትህ ዘመን ብዙ ጀግንነት ይሰማሃል ቆይቶ ግን ኋይል ይከዳሃል፥ ጉልበትህ ይደክማል፥ ደጋፊ ታጣለህ፥ ትወድቃለህ ፥ አትነሳም፤ ወይ በሰው ወይ አምላክ እጅ ትሞታለህ።

Coursera: Free online education platform

Short analysis


Coursera is an education platform that partners with top universities and organizations worldwide, to offer courses online for anyone to take, for free.

Their main mission:

  • Envision a future where everyone has access to a world-class education.
  • Aim to empower people with education that will improve their lives, the lives of their families, and the communities they live in.

How It Works

  • Discover a course and sign up for free: Choose from 400+ courses created by the world’s top educational institutions.
  • Learn on your own schedule: Watch short video lectures, take interactive quizzes, complete peer graded assessments, and connect with classmates and teachers.
  • Achieve your goal: Finish your class and receive recognition for your accomplishment.

The Approach

The Coursera experience

It’s simple. It’s mainly to help students learn better — and faster. That’s why they designed their platform based on proven teaching methods verified by top researchers.

Here are 4 key ideas that were influential in shaping the vision:

  • Effectiveness of online learning

Online learning plays a significant role in a lifelong education. In fact, a recent report by the U.S. Department of Education found that “classes with online learning (whether taught completely online or blended) on average produce stronger student learning outcomes than do classes with solely face-to-face instruction.”

  • Mastery learning

Based on an approach developed by educational psychologist Benjamin Bloom, Mastery Learning helps students fully understand a topic before moving onto a more advanced topic. On Coursera, they typically give immediate feedback on a concept a student did not understand. In many cases, they provide randomized versions of the assignment so a student can re-study and re-attempt the homework.

  • Peer assessments
  • Blended learning

How to Become Rich, and 24 Other Insights from Warren Buffett

Warren Buffett
Nati Harnik—AP

The investing legend shares the secrets to his success.

Warren Buffett is a true genius as he is able to simplify complex ideas into quotes that will stand the test of time. Warren Buffett spent his life dispensing advice to all who would listen, earning him the nickname of the Oracle of Omaha. In the 1960s, this advice came about twice a year in letters to investors in his investment partnerships. Starting a few years later, Warren Buffett’s wisdom was distilled through the Berkshire Hathaway annual meeting and the annual shareholder letter, and in the past 20 years, Warren Buffett has become a household name through appearances on TV and interviews in magazines.

Read on for Warren Buffett’s best quotes on life, investing, and his top five insights.

On life

1. “You only have to do a very few things right in your life so long as you don’t do too many things wrong.”

2. “Should you find yourself in a chronically leaking boat, energy devoted to changing vessels is likely to be a more productive than energy devoted to patching leaks.”

3. “It is not necessary to do extraordinary things to get extraordinary results.”

4. “What we learn from history is that people don’t learn from history.”

5. “Chains of habit are too light to be felt until they are too heavy to be broken.”

6. “There seems to be some perverse human characteristic that likes to make easy things difficult.”

7. “Nothing sedates rationality like large doses of effortless money.”

8. “It takes 20 years to build a reputation and five minutes to ruin it. If you think about that, you’ll do things differently.”

9. “It’s better to hang out with people better than you. Pick out associates whose behavior is better than yours and you’ll drift in that direction.”

10. “Long ago, Ben Graham taught me that ‘Price is what you pay; value is what you get.’ Whether we’re talking about socks or stocks, I like buying quality merchandise when it is marked down.”

On investing

1. “The most important quality for an investor is temperament, not intellect. You need a temperament that neither derives great pleasure from being with the crowd or against the crowd.”

2. “Successful Investing takes time, discipline and patience. No matter how great the talent or effort, some things just take time: You can’t produce a baby in one month by getting nine women pregnant.”

3. “I don’t look to jump over seven-foot bars; I look around for one-foot bars that I can step over.”

4. “In the short term, the market is a popularity contest. In the long term, the market is a weighing machine.”

5. “Opportunities come infrequently. When it rains gold, put out the bucket, not the thimble”

6. “Diversification is a protection against ignorance. It makes very little sense for those who know what they’re doing.”

7. “If you aren’t willing to own a stock for ten years, don’t even think about owning it for ten minutes. Put together a portfolio of companies whose aggregate earnings march upward over the years, and so also will the portfolio’s market value.”

8. “The key to investing is not assessing how much an industry is going to affect society, or how much it will grow, but rather determining the competitive advantage of any given company and, above all, the durability of that advantage.”

9. “I am a better investor because I am a businessman, and a better businessman because I am an investor.”

10. “It’s far better to buy a wonderful company at a fair price than a fair company at a wonderful price.”

Top five insights

Einstein said there are 5 ascending levels of intelligence: Smart, Intelligent, Brilliant, Genius, Simple. Warren Buffett’s top 5 insights each explain a truth about life or investing in the simplest way possible.

1. “I will tell you how to become rich. Close the doors. Be fearful when others are greedy. Be greedy when others are fearful.”

It is a gross oversimplification to say that the key to investing is to buy low and sell high. This quote from when Warren Buffett has been the basis of his most successful investments over time and the basis of how you could have avoided the last few bubbles.

2. “I tell college students, when you get to be my age you will be successful if the people who you hope to have love you, do love you.”

Warren Buffett has spent a lifetime studying conventionally successful people. It’s important to hear that at the end of the day, money is not the thing that matters most in life.

3. “The difference between successful people and really successful people is that really successful people say no to almost everything.”

Numerous greats including Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, and Warren Buffett have attributed their success to focus. Many people have long to-do lists and work on becoming more productive, when in fact, having a not-do list is more important if you want to do great things.

4. “I’ve seen more people fail because of liquor and leverage — leverage being borrowed money. You really don’t need leverage in this world much. If you’re smart, you’re going to make a lot of money without borrowing.”

People succeed in life countless different ways but failures group around a few key themes. As such, you learn more from people’s failures than people’s successes.

5. “What an investor needs is the ability to correctly evaluate selected businesses. Note that word ‘selected’: You don’t have to be an expert on every company, or even many. You only have to be able to evaluate companies within your circle of competence. The size of that circle is not very important; knowing its boundaries, however, is vital.”

One of the quotes I hate the most in investing is Peter Lynch’s “Buy what you know” as it oversimplifies investing. The above quote is sort of the same idea but highlights that the important thing is being able to evaluate companies and also avoid companies you don’t understand. It’s that simple.

Warren Buffett is quoted so much because he has developed a great deal of wisdom over his lifetime. How did he do it?

The secret to Warren Buffett’s success

The secret to Warren Buffett’s success is that he continuously learns. Buffett is a far better investor today than he was 50 years ago. As Charlie Munger has explained:

Warren Buffett has become one hell of a lot better investor since the day I met him, and so have I. If we had been frozen at any given stage, with the knowledge we had, the record would have been much worse than it is. So the game is to keep learning, and I don’t think people are going to keep learning who don’t like the learning process.

While you may pick up a nugget of wisdom or two from the 25 best Warren Buffett quotes, committing yourself to a lifetime of learning is the best advice you should take from Warren Buffett.

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